Monday, 9 January 2012


Porunthal, Tamil Nadu Excavation by  Dr. Rajan, History Department of Pondicherry University&ASI Team , 2008 reveals a new history on Tamil Paddy culture

350 × 283 - ... port-hole, ring-stand, a four-legged jar and pots at Porunthal; ...

Detail of  Tamil script (Tamil Bhrami ) written in 790 B.C. – 490 B.C. which is written in the base of the pot  has 2 kg of paddy. The script read as Va-yi-ra  (Does it mean the stone  diamond as 350 × 283 - ... port-hole, ring-stand, a four-legged jar and pots at Porunthal; ...Vaira mani  or Vairava  Nel Mani? – one of the variety of traditional paddy) (Vairava samba  is a traditional Paddy variety in the zone and mentioned in folk lores and used  in last the century.

A four-legged jar contains  2kg of paddy found in one of the graves, which was written in Tamizhi script Va-yi-ra which triggers the debate

Sample of 2 kg  of cultivated paddy  identified as – Oryza sativa var.sativa   by an archieval  botanist found at the excavated  site which was officially  dated by Beta analysis Inc. (USA),  a world renowned lab by AMS technique. The analysis curve shows its period  between 790 B.C – 490 B.C.

.An urn with a chain-like design around it found at the burial site,  These are burial urns. The storage urns do not have the designs

Adichanallur. Tamil Nadu Excavations ensures Pre Sangam age Paddy civilization
Dr.Satyamurthy, an archaeologist called the Adichanallur (One of the oldest excavated site in India) burial site as  "the earliest site in Tamil Nadu" .Raw  Paddy husk and Paddy art on the Pot  was found that its history would go back to 1,000 B.C .

The c image shows the  potsherd with the motifs of a woman, a stalk of paddy, a crane, a deer and a crocodile.

Paddy husk found: The urn and an earthen pot and its lid  in the foreground, found at Adichanallur   

Living and continuing  Paddy culture of Tamil Nadu since pre Sangam Age ( 200B.C) - Endangering Paddy Irrigation Scientists
Traditional paddy Neerkattis - Traditional Paddy  water managers take care of the entire Paddy irrigation systems and maintenance of the water tanks and rivers in Tamil Nadu who are mostly a single community (The system is practiced  and taken care of  more than 10000 wet and dry tanks and river systems of Thamirabarani, Kaveri and Vaigai  which are supporting and main source of  paddy irrigation in the last century as per the British documents). The system is still existing and the Neerkattis are  in extinct condition.

Neerkattis are  holding  traditional Nel Mani Mudis and other measuring units

As per the Tamil tradition, Neerkattis  are engaged in both the agriculture and martial arts which reminds Sangam Heritage

Traditional  Paddy  measuring instruments of Tamils

Nazhi,   Sangazhi, Thuni & Marrakkai

Paddy Heritage Festivals

Festival for  seeking Rain

‘400 years old Venn Kodai Thiruvizha,  called as Indra Vizha, a traditional Sangam Literature heritage - which worships God of Rain,  Índra’,
(File Photo, 2009 at Rajapalayam, Tamil Nadu)

Note: White umbrella is a symbol and a representation of Rain God, Indra

Festival for Ploughing

‘Pon Yer Pootu Thiruvizha’- Annual  Golden Plough Festival : A celebration of Neerkattis  from time memorial Chithirai muthal naal  (the first day of Tamil New Year & agriculture year)  in Kilaku Abhiramam, Ramnad  Dist. Tamil Nadu. The tradition  is  taken  over to south-east Asia during early Chola period

Transplanting Festivals
Continuing agricultural tradition of  1300 years old Paddy Transplanting Festival of Patteswaram Temple, Perur, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (2009 Files)
Women worshipping Indoor Paddy nursery (Dabog) with Paddy songs.  It is believed that Goddess Patchai Nayagi, goes along with transplanting women to the farm and does the first plantation of paddy along with the entire specialized farming community

Lord Patteswarar goes along with silver Manvetti for preparing the paddy field along with his wife Patchai Nayagi and farming community

Preparation of the Fields

Farming community involved along with Lord Patteswarar in levelling the filed for transplantation

Goddess Patchai Nayagi transplants along with women farming community
Women worhsipping and started doing the transplantation after the first transplantation by the Goddesses

(i)Women worship Goddesses Patchai Nayagi and sing the traditional paddy song along with Kulavai.  (ii)Women starts transplantation in their fileds after the ceremonies carried by Goddesses Patchai Nayagi.

Harvest  Festival

Pongal (Thai Pongal)

A thanks giving celebration for the God Sun & Indra  by the first rice  produced after harvesting
Bunch of Paddy heads (hang on the shoulder) offered to the traditional Gods as their share of yield  by the farmers after harvesting

Festival of Mattu Pongal  
 A celebration in honouring the animals  who were the companions throughout the season after harvesting

Tamilar Nel Anikalan (Paddy Jewel)
Traditiional jewels  from Chola and Pandiya Tamil Kingdom
A model jewellery from the Pragadeshwarar Temple worn by the Goddesses and  by the Royal Chola Princess

Published by.
Dr. MARUTHAMALAI  MURUGAN.R.P               
International Research Institute on Tamil Language, Philosophy and culture, Tamil Nadu, India


Unknown said...

super . thank you sir

surya sooriyamoorthy said...

dear sir,

i would like to introduce myself surya.s landscape currently doing research on sangam landscape.i want to disscuss with u regarding sangam people food culture .

chatachi said...

I am publishing a book entitled Nanchinad: harbinger of rice and plough culture in the ancient world. I am taking the image of ponner poottal from your blog, with your kind permission.
thanking you
Dr V Sankaran Nair